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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugars) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. While genetic and lifestyle factors are well known contributors to the rish of diabetes, precision based medicine suggests that dysbiosis, or a imbalance in the composition and function of the gut microbiota, may also play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes.

The gut microbiome, comprising a diverse array of microorganisms residing within the gastrointestinal tract, plays a crucial role in regulating host metabolism, energy homeostasis, and immune function. Dysbiosis-induced disruptions in the gut microbiome composition and activity can lead to metabolic endotoxemia, characterized by increased gut permeability and elevated circulating levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or other proinflammatory molecules.

These dysregulated gut microbiome-immune interactions can trigger chronic low-grade inflammation and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways, impairing insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Consequently, individuals with dysbiosis may exhibit symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, fatigue, and delayed wound healing, characteristic of diabetes mellitus.

Interventions aimed at modulating the gut microbiome, such as probiotics, prebiotics, nutrition modifications, activity and mental health interventions, represent promising strategies for managing diabetes and improving metabolic health. By restoring microbial equilibrium within the gut and reducing systemic inflammation, these interventions may help mitigate insulin resistance, improve glycemic control, and reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications.